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Extracts from the USGS Yearbook chapter ‘Stone, Crushed’

World Cement,

Domestic Production and Use
Crushed stone valued at US$11 billion was produced by 1600 companies operating 4000 quarries, 86 underground mines, and 311 sales/distribution yards in 50 States. Leading States, in descending order of production, were Texas, Pennsylvania, Missouri, Illinois, California, Florida, Georgia, Virginia, Ohio, and Kentucky, together accounting for 50% of the total crushed stone output. Of the total crushed stone produced in 2009, about 70% was limestone and dolomite; 14%, granite; 7%, traprock; and the remaining 9% was divided, in descending order of tonnage, among miscellaneous stone, sandstone and quartzite, marble, slate, calcareous marl, volcanic cinder and scoria, and shell. It is estimated that of the 1.11 billion tons of crushed stone consumed in the United States in 2009, 49% was reported by use, 31% was reported for unspecified uses, and 20% of the total consumed was estimated for nonrespondents to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) canvasses. Of the 544 million tons reported by use, 83% was used as construction aggregates, mostly for road construction and maintenance; 11%, for cement manufacturing; 2%, for lime manufacturing; 2%, for agricultural uses; and 2%, for special and miscellaneous uses and products. To provide a more accurate estimate of the consumption patterns for crushed stone, the “unspecified uses—reported and estimated,” as defined in the USGS Minerals Yearbook, are not included in the above percentages.

The estimated output of crushed stone in the 48 conterminous States shipped for consumption in the first 6 months of 2009 was 487 million tons, a 26% decrease compared with that of the same period of 2008. Second quarter shipments for consumption also decreased by 26% compared with those of the same period of 2008. Additional production information, by quarter for each State, geographic division, and the United States, is reported in the USGS quarterly Mineral Industry Surveys for Crushed Stone.

Salient statistics – US

                                          2007      2008

Production:                          1650      1440

Imports for consumption:       20          21

Consumption, apparent:        1690       1490 (includes recycled material)

Road surfaces made of asphalt and crushed stone and, to a lesser extent, cement concrete surface layers and structures, were recycled on a limited but increasing basis in most States. Asphalt road surfaces were recycled in 48 States and Puerto Rico, and concrete was recycled by 47 States. The amount of material reported to be recycled increased by 45% in 2009 and increased by 31% in 2008 when compared with that of the previous year.

Events, trends, and issues
Crushed stone production was about 1.11 billion tons in 2009, a decrease of 23% compared with that of 2008. It is estimated that in 2009, apparent consumption will also decrease by 22% to about 1.16 billion tons. Demand for construction aggregates is anticipated to decrease for 2010 based on the slowdown in activity that some of the principal construction markets have experienced over the last 3 years. Long-term projected increases in construction aggregates demand will be influenced by activity in the public and private construction sectors, as well as by construction work related to security measures being implemented around the Nation. The underlying factors that would support a rise in f.o.b. and delivered prices of crushed stone are expected to be present in 2010, especially in and near metropolitan areas.

The crushed stone industry continued to be concerned with environmental, health, and safety regulations. Shortages in some urban and industrialized areas are expected to continue to increase owing to local zoning regulations and land-development alternatives. These issues are expected to continue and to cause new crushed stone quarries to locate away from large population centres.


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