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Utilisation of alternative fuels in the Indian cement industry

World Cement,

Read part two of the article here.

Utilisation of alternate fuels

CPCB has laid down guidelines and procedure on co-processing of hazardous combustible waste in cement kilns. Wastes with the potential for co-processing can only be used after conducting trial run study as per the guidelines. Once regular permission for co-processing is granted for any waste, the other cement plants may not be required to conduct the trial run again. Furthermore, the mechanism to be followed for co-processing hazardous wastes has to conform to the Rules and Regulations as provided for under HW (MHTM) Rules 2008, apart from provisions in various other related Acts and Rules. As per Rule 11 of HW (MHTM), CPCB has been empowered to grant approval for utilisation of hazardous wastes as a supplementary resource or for energy recovery, or after processing. Obtaining such approval beforehand is mandatory. This authorisation requirement is also applicable for cement co-processing.

The emission standards for particulate matter prescribed for cement kilns by the concerned SPCB shall also be applicable during co-processing in cement kilns. For other pollutants – i.e. HCl, SO2, CO, TOC, HF, NOX, total dioxins and furans, Cd+, Tl+ their compounds, Hg and its compounds, Sb+ As+, Pb+, Co+, Cr+, Cu+, Mn+, Ni+, V+ their compounds – the emissions during co-processing should not exceed the baseline emissions, i.e. emissions during the pre co-processing phase of the trial run.

Environment Statement (ES)

In India, cement plants have to submit the environmental statement for the previous year (ending 31st March) on or before 30th September every year to the respective SPCBs. The ES prepared and submitted by cement plants usually includes the following:

  • Consent to operate – plant and quarries.
  • Hazardous waste (authorisation).
  • Consumption of raw materials, electricity and water.
  • Statement on monitoring of fugitive dust, ambient air quality, stack emission, noise.
  • Hazardous waste consumption statement.
  • Solid waste generated/disposed/recycled.
  • Details of effluent/sewage generation and its treatment.
  • Measures for pollution prevention and control.
  • Action plan for tree plantation and plantation status.

Environment Impact Assessment

Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) is a statutory requirement for most developmental and industrial activities in India. EIA was made mandatory for certain categories of projects through a notification of January 1994. Based on experience and in accordance with objectives of the National Environment Policy (NEP), 2006, EIA Notification was gazetted on 14 September 2006 under sub-rule (3) of Rule 5 of the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 for imposing certain restrictions and prohibitions on new projects or activities, or on the expansion or modernisation of existing projects or activities in any part of India based on their potential environmental impacts as indicated in the Schedule to the notification.

Cement and Mining projects fall under Schedule of EIA Notification 2006 of MoEF and are classified into category A and B. For category ‘A’ industry, EIA is mandatory and environmental clearance has to be obtained from MoEF and for category ‘B’ industry, environmental clearance has to be obtained from state pollution control boards. New cement plants or expansion of old plants, with capacity more than 1 million tpa, are classified as category ‘A’ industry and cement plants, with less than 1.0 million tpa capacity are classified as category ‘B’ industry. All stand alone grinding units fall under category ‘B’. For quarries, =50 ha of lease area falls under Category A and <50 ha or =5 ha of lease area falls under Category B.

Read part four of the article here.

This article is abridged from the original, which was included as ‘Keynote: Environmental Regulations in India’ in the October 2013 issue. The issue is available for subscribers to download by signing in here.

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